Removing Deployment Friction With Push-To-Deploy

appengineAt work we use CloudFoundry as our PaaS, but I also like to keep informed about what other platforms do.

Google AppEngine Introduces Push-To-Deploy

Google AppEngine recently added an interesting feature: Push-to-Deploy through Git.

With Push-To-Deploy, you can simply push your code to a Git repository to get your code deployed on AppEngine.

This Git repository is maintained by Google and tied to your cloud account. I guess this is implemented using the post-receive Git server hook.

Push-To-Deploy Removes Friction

What I like about this feature is that it removes some friction from the deployment process: you no longer need to know about how to deploy your application on AppEngine.

Push-To-Deploy inches us closer to a Frictionless Development Environment (FDE). The two most likely candidates to become the FDE of choice both support Git, so it’s easy to use Push-To-Deploy in both Orion and Cloud9.

More Friction Remains

LubricationOf course, this is only a small step and a lot more work needs to be done before we really have an FDE.

In my ideal world, for any change that I make the FDE would automatically run the tests and code checkers in the background and, when successful, push the changes to a development branch to make them available for my co-workers.

To make this efficient, only tests that could potentially have been impacted by the changes would run, and they would run in parallel in the cloud. When specified criteria are matched, changes on the development branch would propagate to master and, using Push-To-Deploy, to production.

Although this is all far far away, every step is to be applauded, and I hope other PaaS providers will follow Google’s example.

What Do You Think?

Do you use Google AppEngine? Git? Would you use Push-To-Deploy? Would you like to see a similar feature in CloudFoundry or another PaaS?

Please leave a comment.

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How To Remove Friction From Your Version Control Experience

ErrorLast week, I spend several days fixing a bug that only surfaced in a distributed environment.

I felt pressure to fix it quickly, because our continuous integration build was red, and we treat that as a “stop the line” event.

Then I came across a post from Tomasz Nurkiewicz who claims that breaking the build is not a crime.

Tomasz argues that a better way to organize software development is to make sure that breaking changes don’t affect your team mates. I agree.

Broken Builds Create Friction

Breaking changes from your co-workers are a form of friction, since they take away time and focus from your job. Tomasz’ setup has less friction than ours.

But I feel we can do better still. In a perfect Frictionless Development Environment (FDE), all friction is removed. So what would that look like with regard to version control?

With current version control systems, there is lots of friction. I complained about Perforce before because of that.

Git is much better, but even then there are steps that have to be performed that take away focus from the real goal you’re trying to achieve: solving the customer’s problem using software.

For instance, you still have to create a new topic branch to work on. And you have to merge it with the main development line. In a perfect world, we wouldn’t have to do that.

Frictionless Version Control

version-controlSo how would a Frictionless Development Environment do version control for us?

Knowing when to create a branch is easy.

All work happens on a topic branch, so every time you start to work on something, the FDE could create a new branch.

The problem is knowing when to merge. But even this is not as hard as it seems.

You’re done with your current work item (user story or whatever you want to call it) when it’s coded, all the tests pass, and the code is clean.

So how would the FDE know when you’re done thinking of new tests for the story?

Well, if you practice Behavior-Driven Development (BDD), you start out with defining the behavior of the story in automated tests. So the story is functionally complete when there is a BDD test for it, and all scenarios in that test pass.

Now we’re left with figuring out when the code is clean. Most teams have a process for deciding this too. For instance, code is clean when static code analysis tools like PMD, CheckStyle, and FindBugs give no warnings.

Some people will argue that we need a minimum amount of code coverage from our tests as well. Or that the code needs to be reviewed by a co-worker. Or that Fortify must not find security vulnerabilities. That’s fine.

pipelineThe basic point is that we can formally define a pipeline of processes that we want to run automatically.

At each stage of the pipeline can we reject the work. Only when all stages complete successfully, are we done.

And then the FDE can simply merge the branch with the main line, and delete it. Zero friction from version control.

What do you think?

Would you like to lubricate your version control experience? Do you think an automated branching strategy as outlined above would work?

Five Essential Components of a Frictionless Development Environment

One of the challenges of maintaining a consistent programming style in a team is for everyone to have the same workspace settings, especially in the area of compiler warnings.

Every time a new member joins the team, an existing member sets up a new environment, or a new version of the compiler comes along, you have to synchronize settings.

My team recently started using Workspace Mechanic, an Eclipse plug-in that allows you to save those settings in an XML file that you put under source control.

The plug-in periodically compares the workspace settings with the contents of that file. It notifies you in case of differences, and allows you to update your environment with a couple of clicks.

Towards a Frictionless Development Environment

Workspace Mechanic is a good example of a lubricant, a tool that lubricates the development process to reduce friction.

LubricationMy ideal is to take this to the extreme with a Frictionless Development Environment (FDE) in which all software development activities go very smoothly.

Let’s see what we would likely need to make such an FDE a reality.

In this post, I will look at a very small example that uncovers some of the basic components of an FDE.

Example: Creating the Class Under Test

In Test-Driven Development, we start out with a test and there is no class under test yet. Eclipse has a Quick Fix to create the class, but we still have to manually invoke it and select a source folder to store it in (assuming you have different source folders for main and test code).

It would be nicer if the IDE would understand what you’re trying to do and automatically create the skeleton for the class under test for you and save it in the right place.

Big DataThe crux is for the tool to understand what you are doing, or else it could easily draw the wrong conclusion and create all kinds of artifacts that you don’t want.

This kind of knowledge is highly user and potentially even project specific. It is therefore imperative that the tool collects usage data and uses that to optimize its assistance. We’re likely talking about big data here.

Given the fact that it’s expensive in terms of storage and computing power to collect and analyze these statistics, it makes sense to do this in a cloud environment.

That will also allow for quicker learning of usage patterns when working on different machines, like in the office and at home. More importantly, it allows building on usage patterns of other people.

What this example also shows, is that we’ll need many small, very focused lubricants. This makes it unlikely for one organization to provide all lubricants for an FDE that suits everybody, even for a specific language.

Open Source SoftwareThe only practical way of assembling an FDE is through a plug-in architecture for lubricants.

Building an FDE will be a huge effort. To realize it on the short term, we’ll probably need an open source model. No one company could put in the resource required to pull this off in even a couple of years.

The Essential Components of a Frictionless Development Environment

This small example uncovered the following building blocks for a Frictionless Development Environment:

  1. Cloud Computing will provide economies of scale and access from anywhere
  2. Big Data Analytics will discern usage patterns
  3. Recommendation Engines will convert usage patterns into context-aware lubricants
  4. A Plug-in architecture will allow different parties to contribute lubricants and usage analysis tools
  5. An Open Source model will allow many organizations and individuals to collaborate

What do you think?

Do you agree with the proposed components of an FDE? Did I miss something?

Please share your thoughts in the comments.

How Friction Slows Us Down

FrictionI once joined a project where running the “unit” tests took three and a half hours.

As you may have guessed, the developers didn’t run the tests before they checked in code, resulting in a frequently red build.

Running the tests just gave too much friction for the developers.

I define friction as anything that resist the developer while she is producing software.

Since then, I’ve spotted friction in numerous places while developing software.

Friction in Software Development

Since friction impacts productivity negatively, it’s important that we understand it. Here are some of my observations:

  • Friction can come from different sources.
    It can result from your tool set, like when you have to wait for Perforce to check out a file over the network before you can edit it.
    Friction can also result from your development process, for example when you have to wait for the QA department to test your code before it can be released.
  • Friction can operate on different time scales.
    Some friction slows you down a lot, while others are much more benign. For instance, waiting for the next set of requirements might keep you from writing valuable software for weeks.
    On the other hand, waiting for someone to review your code changes may take only a couple of minutes.
  • Friction can be more than simple delays.
    It also rears its ugly head when things are more difficult then they ought to be.
    In the vi editor, for example, you must switch between command and insert modes. Seasoned vi users are just as fast as with editors that don’t have that separation. Yet they do have to keep track of which mode they are in, which gives them a higher cognitive load.

Lubricating Software Development

LubricationThere has been a trend to decrease friction in software development.

Tools like Integrated Development Environments have eliminated many sources of friction.

For instance, Eclipse will automatically compile your code when you save it.

Automated refactorings decrease both the time and the cognitive load required to make certain code changes.

On the process side, things like Agile development methodologies and the DevOps movement have eliminated or reduced friction. For instance, continuous deployment automates the release of software into production.

These lubricants have given us a fighting chance in a world of increasing complexity.

Frictionless Software Development

It’s fun to think about how far we could take these improvements, and what the ultimate Frictionless Development Environment (FDE) might look like.

My guess is that it would call for the combination of some of the same trends we already see in consumer and enterprise software products. Cloud computing will play a big role, as will simplification of the user interaction, and access from anywhere.

What do you think?

What frictions have you encountered? Do you think frictions are the same as waste in Lean?

What have you done to lubricate the frictions away? What would your perfect FDE look like?

Please let me know your thoughts in the comments.